Science PMR

The science examination in PMR is also divided into 2 papers, that is Science Paper 1 and Science Paper 2. Paper 1 consists of 40 multiple choice questions in escalating difficulty and is worth 40 marks. The time limit for this paper is 1 hour. The Science Paper 1, similar to Mathematics Paper 1, is usually very tough to score above 30. The usage of calculator for this paper is allowed, this is to help the students to answer the questions based on physics.

Science Paper 2, similar to the Mathematics Paper 2, requires open-ended input. This paper consists of 8 to 10 subjective questions. The marks allocated for the questions in Paper 2 vary from 1 mark to 6 marks, each measure proficiency in several units of the science syllabus, with a total of 60 marks. The time limit for this paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes and the usage of calculator is not allowed for this paper. The last 2 questions are usually experimental ones, which requires the student to formulate a hypothesis, determine thevariables of the experiment and tabulate the data for the experiment. The marks allocated for this section of Paper 2 are usually more because it requires the student to explain further based on their knowledge in science. The syllabus covers various aspects ofchemistry, biology and physics. These distinctions into different fields are not made in the examination format but can be derived based on the different themes:

Chemistry
  • Matter and materials science. Chemical and physical properties. The phases of matter and the changes it undergoes.
  • The variety of resources on earth. Chemical elements, compounds and mixtures.
  • Electrochemistry.
  • Testing for results of biological processes.
  • The composition of air. Combustion.
  • Water and solution. Acids and bases.
  • Silicon compounds and calcium compounds. Reactions of metals with non-metals.
  • Pollution and steps to combat pollution.
  • Manufactured substances in industries. Chemicals for consumers.
Biology
  • Cellular biology. Unicellular and multicellular organisms.
  • Adaptation of life to the environment.
  • The evolutionary theory.
  • Scientific classification of life.
  • The sensory organs.
  • Biodiversity and the interdependence among living organisms and the environment.
  • Biological production and population growth: recognising reasons for an exponential and logistic function in a graph.
  • Animal gestation and plant germination. Life cycles. Photosynthesis.
  • Harms and uses of different plants and animals, overall knowledge of role each organism plays in an ecosystem.
  • Human growth
  • Nutrition. The classes of food and a balanced diet. The human digestive system. Absorption of digested food and reabsorption of water and defaecation. The habits of healthy eating.
  • The human anatomy.
  • Respiration in humans, animals and plants.
  • Blood circulation and transport in humans and plants.
  • Support and movement in humans, animals and plants.
  • Excretion in humans, animals and plants.
  • Asexual reproduction in organisms.
  • Sexual reproduction and organs in male and female. The menstrual cycle, fertilization, pregnancy and pre-natal care.
  • Sexual intercourse and safe sex. Research in human reproduction and cloning.
  • Pollination, flowers and dispersal of fruits. The development of fruit and seeds. Vegetative reproduction in flowering plants.
Physics
  • The scientific method. Physical quantities and their units. The use of measuring tools. The concept of mass and the importance ofstandard units in measurements.
  • Energy. Its forms such as heat, thermodynamics in a system and the conservation of energy.
  • Biogeochemical cycles: water cycle, nitrogen cycle, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere.
  • Air pressure and its application.
  • Dynamics. Forces, work and power.
  • Stability.
  • Simple machines.
  • Reflection and refraction of light. Concave and convex lens. Vision and optical illusions.
  • Sound waves.
  • Electricity and electrostatics. Ohm’s law. Concept of series and parallel circuits. Current, voltage and resistance.
  • Magnetism and electromagnetism.
  • The generation of electricity. Electronics. Transformers. Electrical supply and wiring system at home. Fuses and Earth wire.
  • Astrophysics. The solar system, stars, galaxies and the universe.
  • The history and developments of space exploration and the field of astronomy.

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